Letter to the Mayor Complaining About the Stray Dog Menace in the Locality

To The Hon’ble Mayor/the Chairman, Date Re: Stray dog menaceDear Sir,I, as President of the local Zonal Committee, take the privilege of bringing to your kind attention to the stray dog menace in the locality of____________ (with full address including Ward No. ____________). ADVERTISEMENTS: For the last six months the number of stray dogs in the locality have increased manifold and the people living in this area have been terror-striken by such dogs. The situation has become alarming when several small school going children have been bitten by these dogs.It is also most obnoxious and disturbing when these stray dogs start barking in chorus continuing for prolonged time at all the nights robbing of slumber of the people. It is now of paramount necessity to get rid of these dogs…
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Letter to the Municipal Corporation Complaining About Inadequate Supply of Water

To The Mayor/Chairman, Date Re: Inadequate supply of waterDear Sir,We, the inhabitant’s of have to inform you that the supply of water through pipe lines in our area has been extremely inadequate for which the inmates of families of every house have been suffering beyond description. During summer season in particular when requirement of water is more, sufferings of the people for want of water know no bounds. ADVERTISEMENTS: The reason for shortage of water is the increase in the number of people in our area on account of mushroom growth of flats. The problem of scarcity of water has been precipitated due to disbalancing in the supply and requirement of water which is passing through smaller diameter of water pipes for the last many years, in order to improve…
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Application to the Rationing Officer Requesting to Issue New Ration Cards

From DateTo The Rationing Officer,Re: Request for issuance of new Ration Cards. ADVERTISEMENTS: Dear Sir,This is for your Kind information that I was in service at ____________ (Place Name), the metropolis of ____________ (Place) for the last ____________ (Year) and there was no public distribution system and as such there was no question of drawing ration against ration card from there.Now, my services have been transferred to ____________ (Place) as per copy of letter ____________ (Date) of transfer orders enclosed. In ____________ (Place) I along with the members of my family am putting up at________________ (Address of Residence).I would, therefore, request you to arrange issuance of new Ration Cards in favour of me and the members of my family, as per details given below: ADVERTISEMENTS: Kindly be informed that I…
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The Main Elements of the Indifference Curves Analysis of Consumer Behaviour

Main elements of the indifference curves analysis of consumer behaviour are given below:Prof. J.R. Hicks developed the ‘indifference curves technique for explain consumer behaviour as an alternative to ‘Utility Analysis’. This technique is based on ordinal measurement of utility.An indifference curve is a locus of points, each representing a different combination of two goods, which yield the same level of satisfaction to the consumer. ADVERTISEMENTS: According to Prof. Left witch, “A single indifference curve shows the different combination of X and Y goods that yield equal satisfaction to the consumer.”Indifference curves slope negatively and are convex to the origin. Higher indifference curves represent higher level of satisfaction.Indifference curve technique is based on preference hypothesis. It assumes that the consumer is rational and consistent in his choice of basket of goods.Rationality…
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7 Important Criticisms of Indifference Curve Analysis – Explained!

Indifference curve technique is definitely an improvement over utility analysis and it has a number of uses and merits. In spite of merits, indifference curve analysis suffers from shortcomings and these are followings: Criticisms 1. Unrealistic assumptions: It is based on unrealistic assumptions of rationality, perfect competition, divisibility of goods and perfect knowledge of scale or preference.The purchases of a consumer arc very much affected by habits, customs and fashion. Therefore, a consumer does not act always rationally. We cannot expect a consumer to know his indifference map. Goods Visible and perfect completion is a myth. Image Source : blog2.ecoastsales.com 2. No novelty: Prof. D.H. Robertson remarked that the indifference curve technique is merely “An old wine in new bottle.”This technique is similar to the utility analysis because it merely…
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5 Important Applications of Indifference Curves – Explained!

The technique of indifference curves has assumed special significance because of its application in almost every sphere of economic activity. A few such applications can be mentioned as follows: Applications 1. In the theory of production: The basic aim of a producer is to attain a low cost combination. Indifference curves are useful in the realization of this objective.When we use these curves in the theory of production, they are called iso-product curves. Producer’s equilibrium i.e. low cost combination is obtained at the point where producer’s budget line becomes tangent to one of the iso-product curves on the map. Image Source : st.motortrend.com 2. In the theory of Exchange: Prof. Edge worth used the technique of indifference curves to show the mutual gains from the exchange of two goods between…
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5 Concepts on Which the Revealed Preference Theory is Based

Both ‘utility analysis’ and ‘indifference curves analysis’ use introspective method or psychological approach to explain consumer’s behaviour and demand.Theory, propounded by Prof. PA. Samuelson, attempts to explain consumer’s behaviour and consumer’s demand on the basis of observed market behaviour of the consumer in different price-income situation.Thus, the revealed preference theory provides behaviouristic explanation of consumer’s demand. ADVERTISEMENTS: The revealed preference theory is based on the following concepts or elements: (i) Ordinal utility: According to Prof. Samuelson utilities are merely comparable and not quantifiable. It means it is based on the concept of ordinal utility. Image Source : pa211sw.communityos.org (ii) Preference hypothesis: It means when a consumer chooses a particular combination of goods, say P, out of various combinations available to him in a given price-income situation, then he reveals his…
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Essay on Indian Coal Allocation Scam

The Indian coal allocation scam or the most famous coal controversy in 2012 has resulted in a widespread distress among the citizens and the anti-corruption protesters and the anger has come out in the form of street demonstrations against the ruling party and the prime minister of India Mr. Manmohan Singh.Arvind Kejriwal, anti -corruption activist and Anna Hazare along with his team marched towards the residences of the Prime Minister, Congress Party and Bharatiya Janata Party members residences. The police had to use tear gas and water cannons to prevent the crowd from entering these residences.Considered as one of the biggest scam in the last decade, the Indian coal allocation scam is a political controversy highlighting the nation’s irregularities in the matter of handling national coal deposits. Image Source :…
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3 Types of Factors that Influence the Cost of Production

Types of factors which influence the cost of production are as follows:An entrepreneur has to take some very important decisions before setting up a new venture. These decisions have close bearing on the cost of production of the product in the long run.He has to decide the site of the works, the nature of production, scope and size of the market that will be served and the size of the plant. ADVERTISEMENTS: All these decisions are of such nature that once taken cannot be altered time and again. All these decisions affect the cost of production in the long run.The entrepreneur, therefore, should study the various forces (factors) which may affect the cost behaviour in the long run.Generally there are three types of factors which influence the cost of production…
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What is the Relationship between Average Cost and Marginal Cost?

The various points of relationship between average cost and marginal cost are given below:Both average cost and marginal cost are derived from total cost. Average cost is obtained by dividing total cost by the number of units produced. Marginal cost is the cost of producing one additional unit of output.The total cost, in this reference, is the sum total of the total fixed cost plus total variable cost at a given level of output. Image Source : longtermcarenow.com ADVERTISEMENTS: The marginal cost curve bears relationship to the average cost curve. It is very important to have a clear idea about this relationship as it plays an important role in the price theory.The various points of relationship between average cost and marginal cost can be summed up as follows:(i) When average…
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