There are two curious episodes in the feature film Director’s School Diary that are directly related to the subject of my work.
The first episode. The headmaster’s wife asks her husband if he has hired a junior teacher. He replies, “No,” and adds, “She also says ‘trance’.”
The second episode. The headmaster talks to a young teacher who has applied to be hired. The headmaster asks his interlocutor, at first glance, a completely harmless question: “What kind of transport did you get to school?” She replies: “Trolleybus.” “What other transport can you get to school?” asks the director. “Tram,” the answer followed. The director nodded in satisfaction and said, “It’s okay.” It is significant that for the headmaster, speech culture is a peculiar characteristic of professional fitness.
Improving a teacher’s speech culture is a necessary part of improving his or her teaching skills.
But is it only teachers who have to master the culture of speech? Are teachers only interested in the success of their performance, in the positive result of communication? Speech culture is an indicator of professional suitability for diplomats, lawyers, for broadcasters on television and radio, for speakers, journalists, but also for executives of different levels. Therefore, the topic of my work is relevant and undeniable.
It is important to have a culture of speech for everyone who is connected with people, organizes and directs their work, conducts business negotiations, educates, cares about health, renders various services to people.
1.What is Speech Culture?
Speech culture refers to a set of qualities that have the best impact on the recipient, taking into account the particular situation and in accordance with the task. These include:
- clarity and clarity
- clarity of speech.
As can be seen from this definition, speech culture is not limited to the concept of correctness of speech and cannot be reduced, according to V.G. Kostomarov, to the list of prohibitions and the dogmatic definition of “right – wrong”. The concept of “culture of speech” is closely related to the regularities and features of the development and functioning of language, as well as to speech activity in all its diversity. It also includes the possibility of finding a new speech form to express concrete content in every real situation of speech communication, provided by the language system. Speech culture develops the skills to regulate the selection and use of language tools in the process of speech communication, helps to form a conscious attitude to their use in speech practice.
For the construction of objective, alien taste assessments of the theory of speech culture – write in the article “Theory of speech activity and culture of speech” V.G. Kostomarov, AA Leontiev and B.C. Schwartzkopf, requires an appeal to psycholinguistics or, more broadly, to speech theory. The central concept of “correctness” of speech – the literary and linguistic norm – cannot be defined on the basis of internal systemic factors of language, and requires the study, in particular, of the psychological laws governing speech activity. Along with sociological factors, the latter largely determine the “norm” and, more broadly, the “cultural” literary expression. ”
Therefore, everyone who wants to enhance their culture of speech should understand:
- what is national russian language,
- in what forms does it exist,
- than written speech is different from oral,
- what types of speech are typical,
- what functional styles are,
- why there are phonetic, lexical, grammatical variants in the language,
- what is their difference. To master and develop: skills of selection of use of language means in the process of communication.
- norms of literary language.
- The basis of speech culture is literary language. It is the highest form of the national language. The main features of literary language are highlighted in the scientific linguistic literature. These include:
- stability (stability);
- mandatory for all native speakers;
- availability of functional styles.
Literary language serves various spheres of human activity: politics, science, verbal arts, education, legislation, official business communication, informal communication of native speakers (domestic communication), inter-ethnic communication, printing, radio, television.
Depending on the goals and objectives that are set in the communication process, there is a selection of different language tools. The result is a kind of unified literary language called functional styles.
The term functional style emphasizes that varieties of literary language are distinguished on the basis of the function (role) that the language performs in each case.
Usually distinguish the following functional styles:
- official business,
- newspaper and journalistic,
- colloquial and ordinary.
Styles of literary language are most often compared on the basis of an analysis of their lexical composition, since it is in vocabulary that the difference between them is most noticeable.
The attachment of words to a certain style of speech is explained by the fact that in addition to the subject-logical content, the emotional and stylistic coloring is included in the lexical meaning of many words. Compare: mother, mom, mom, mom, mom, dad, dad, dad, dad, pa. The words of each row have the same meaning, but they differ stylistically, used in different styles. Mother, father are predominantly used in the official-business style, the rest of the words – in colloquial and ordinary.
Comparing synonymous words: face – appearance, lack – deficit, attack – crime, fun – entertainment, alteration – transformation, warrior – warrior, eyeball – optometrist, lie – liar, huge – giant, waste – to waste, cry – to waste, cry It is easy to notice that these synonyms also differ from each other not in sense, but in their stylistic color. The first words of each pair are used in colloquial and ordinary, and the second – in popular science, journalistic, official business.
In addition to the concept and stylistic coloring, the word is capable of expressing feelings, as well as evaluating the various phenomena of real reality. There are two groups of emotionally expressive vocabulary: words with positive and negative evaluation. Compare: excellent, beautiful, excellent, wonderful, marvelous, luxurious, magnificent (positive) and bad, vile, disgusting, ugly, insolent, insolent, nasty (negative). Here are words with different grades that characterize a person: a wise woman, a hero, a hero, an eagle, a lion and a fool, a pygmy, a donkey, a cow, a crow.
Depending on what emotional and expressive expression is expressed in a word, it is used in different styles of speech. Emotionally expressive vocabulary is most fully represented in colloquial and ordinary speech, which is distinguished by liveliness and precision of presentation. Expressively colored words are also characteristic of journalistic style. However, in scientific and formal-business styles of speech, emotionally colored words are usually inappropriate.
Usually spoken vocabulary is used in everyday-everyday dialogue, which is characteristic of oral speech. It does not violate the accepted norms of literary speech, but it is characterized by a certain freedom. For example, if instead of expressions blotting paper, a reading room, a drying machine, use the words blotter, eraser, dryer, then they are quite permissible in conversational speech, they are inappropriate in official, business communication.
In addition to words that make up the style of a conversational style in the whole range of their meanings and are not found in other styles, for example: crocodile, letterman, bewilder – there are also words that are colloquial in only one of the figurative meanings. For example, the word unscrewed (the sacrament from the verb to unscrew) is in the main meaning perceived as stylistically neutral, and in the sense of “lost the ability to restrain” – as colloquial.
The words of the conversational style are characterized by great semantic capacity and colorfulness, giving the speech liveliness and expressiveness.
Spoken words are contrasted with book vocabulary. These include the words of scientific, newspaper-journalistic and official-business styles, usually presented in writing. The lexical meaning of book words, their grammatical form and pronunciation are subject to the established norms of literary language, deviation from which is inadmissible.
The scope of spreading book words is not the same. Along with the words common to the scientific, newspaper-journalistic and official-business styles, there are also some in the vocabulary of the book which are fixed only by some one style and make up their specificity. For example, terminological vocabulary is used mainly in the scientific style. Its purpose is to give a clear and precise idea of scientific concepts (for example, technical terms – bimetal, centrifuge, stabilizer; medical terms – x-ray, sore throat, diabetes; linguistic terms – morpheme, affix, flexion, etc.).
The journalistic style is characterized by distracted words of social and political significance (humanity, progress, nationality, publicity, peace loving).
In business style – official correspondence, governmental acts, speeches – vocabulary is used that reflects official-business relations (plenum, session, decision, resolution, resolution). A special group within the official business vocabulary is formed by chancellery: hear (report), read (decision), forward, incoming (number).
Unlike colloquial and everyday vocabulary, which is characterized by the specificity of meaning, book vocabulary is predominantly abstract. The terms book and spoken vocabulary are conditional, since they do not necessarily relate to the presentation of just one form of speech. Book words typical of written speech can be used in oral form (scientific reports, public speeches, etc.), and colloquial words – in written (in diaries, household correspondence, etc.).
The colloquial vocabulary is adjacent to the colloquial vocabulary, which is beyond the styles of literary language. Common words are usually used for the purpose of reduced, rude characterization of phenomena and objects of real reality. For example: a brother, a glutton, a junk, a lie, a frost, a pharynx, a puddle, a buzz, etc. In official-business communication these words are inadmissible, and in ordinary-spoken speech they should be avoided.
However, not all words are distributed between different styles of speech. In Russian there is a large group of words used in all styles without exception and characteristic for both oral and written speech. Such words form the background against which the stylistically colored vocabulary stands out. They are called stylistically neutral.