Essay on the Life History of Qutbuddin Aibak

In the words of Stanley Lanepoole, “Qutbuddin was the real founder of the Muslim dominion in India.” Although the credit of the victories in India goes to Muhammad Ghori, yet Aibak was pri­marily responsible for the success of Sultan Ghori.

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The consolida­tion of the victories was not done by Ghori for he mostly remained away from India. It was Aibak who carried out the consolidation on behalf of Ghori and strengthened the infant Muslim empire.


Owing to the untimely death of Ghori the survival of the Indian empire was endangered but with his ability and farsightedness, Aibak not only saved the newly established Muslim empire from the politics of Central Asia but also organized it properly and well. He also con­solidated his own position by establishing matrimonial alliances with the rival nobles and chiefs.

Aibak was a competent soldier and u leader of the highest merit. Fakhr-i-Muddawar writes about him, “Despite the fact that his troops were drawn from such heterogeneous sources as Turks, Ghurids, Khaljis, Khurasanis and Hindustanis, no soldier dared lake “by force a blade of grass, a morsel of food, a goat from the fold or a bird from the town or extract compulsory lodging from a peasant.

He was a seasoned commander, a practical ruler and a successful diplomat. He effectively separated the infant Turkish kingdom from “the politics of Central Asia and tackled his (local rivals such as Yaldoz, Qubacha and Ali Mardan etc. tactfully. Seeing his great achievement, all the modern historians praised his military campaigns. Abul Fazl writes about him, “He achieved things great and good.”

Aibak possessed all the good qualities which were needed in a sultan A. B. M. Habibullah writes, “He combined the intrepidity of the Turk with the refined taste and generosity of the Persian.” Hasan Nizami writes, “Qutbuddin dispensed evenhanded justice to the people and exerted himself to promote peace and prosperity of the realm, during his time wolf and sheep drank at the same pond.”


Qutbuddin was kind and benevolent to the people. He was very liberal and charitable. He would give charity to the people very liberally and earned the title of Lakh Baksh, i.e., one who gives lakhs of rupees in charity.

Besides this, he was a patron of Art and literature. He built two great mosques—one at Delhi known as Oawat-ul-Islam, and die other at Almer called Adhai-Uin-ka-Jhonpara. He started the cons­truction work of the Qutub Minar in 1119 a.d. after the name of a Suti saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki. But after his death it was completed m the reign of Iltutmish, his successor.

Qutbuddin showered patronage on the literary and learned persons of his times. Hasan Nizami and Fakhr-i-Muddawar dedica­ted their books to him and they added to the prestige of his court.

Besides the above merits, he had a denier it inasmuch as he was not an administrative genius, but he protected the life and property of the people of his kingdom. The fundamental basis of his adminis­tration rested on army and the local administration remained in the hands of provincial officials. However, Dr. Ishwari Prasad praises his great personality and ranks him among the great pioneers of Muslim conquest in India.


In the final summing up of the character and personality of Aibak, we can very well quote Professor S. R. Sharma who writes. “In short he was a tighter in the way of God-, he filled the realm with friends and cleared it of foes.

His bounty was continuous and so was his slaughter. Professor A. B. M. Habibullah writes. “It hardly needs emphasizing that to his untiring exertion and devoted service Muizuddm owed most of his success in India for he really supplied the motive power. Aibak was responsible for the detailed planning and initiation of the Delhi State.”


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