Who were the Successors of Mahmud Ghazni?

Masud (1030-1040 A.D.) The empire of Mahmood was so vast that it was very difficult to control it efficiently. He knew this fact very well. He, therefore, divided his vast empire into two parts even in his life time and gave one to his son Masud and the other to Muhammad.

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However, after his death a conflict took place between the two brothers in which Masud achieved success. He blinded and imprisoned Muhammad. Masud was a worthy son of a worthy father. Dr. Ishwari Prasad has written about him, “He was a true son of his father, full of ambition, courage and war-like zeal.” He got the blessings of the contemporary Khalifa and ruled for about ten years.


Although Masud was quite powerful and courageous, he was defeated by the Seljuk Turks in the battle of Marv and fleeing the battlefield he took shelter in Lahore. During the last days of Mahmood and throughout the reign of Masud, Punjab remained under the control of governors but owing to the conspiracies, selfishness and inefficiency of Muslim officials, the administration of Punjab went to dogs but a Hindu named Tilak served Masud very sincerely.

The condition of Punjab was topsy turvy when Masud reached Lahore. His army was defeated and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks. At this critical juncture his soldiers revolted against hinrand after his dethronement handed him over to his blind brother Muhammad.

Muhammad killed Masud and sat on the throne. After some time Maudud, a son of Masud, defeated his uncle Muhammad and ascended the throne in 1041 A.D. He ruled for about eight years but he was a very weak ruler.

After his death a war of succession was fought and several unworthy rulers ascended the throne one after the other. Besides the problems of Punjab, they were always terrified of the rising power of the Seljuk Turks. The rise of Ghor proved fatal for the Ghazni Empire. There was a family feud between these two families, i.e., Ghaznavids and Ghorids and by 1155 it reached its peak. Alauddin Hussain of Ghor invaded Ghazni and ruthlessly plundered it in 115: A.D. . He burnt down almost the entire city and assumed the title of Jahan Soz (World Burner). He also massacred the people of Ghazni and enslaved the women and children in large numbers. He destroyed all those beautiful buildings which were built by Mahmood Ghaznavi with the help of Indian artisans.


The last ruler of Ghaznavids, Khusrav Shah, was compelled to take refuge in Punjab. Muhammad Ghori was the most illustrious sultan of the family of Ghor. He not only crushed the power of the Ghaznavids completely but also laid the foundation of Turkish rule in India.


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