Essay on Solid Waste – Causes, Effects and Solid Waste Management

Waste, which is non-affective and comes from city, town or village as domestic and biomedical waste is termed as municipal solid waste

Causes of Solid Waste Pollution

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A. Over population:

Pollution naturally increases with the growing number of persons, produce more waste.

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B. Affluence:

The tendency to pronounce the things as fashion and check them out, when not required as out of fashion.


C. Technology:

Packaging of most of the gifts is considered as the source of solid waste pollution as most of these are non-biodegradable.

D. Due to poor implementation of environment protection laws, urbanization, lack of awareness and lack of participation from the public, the problem of solid waste has increased at the highest level.

E. Growth in consumption leads to consumption of items and on the other hand, wastes production.


Affects of Solid Waste Pollution

A. Contaminates water and air, resulting into diseases and dysentery in Human beings.

B. Mosquitoes breed in the stagnant water, blocked due to waste choked in the drains.

C. Decomposition of solid waste spreads obnoxious odour in the air, thus polluting it.

D. Burning of waste, especially plastic adds up obnoxious fumes in the air.

E. Garbage dumps and decomposed waste helps many harmful species to breed in them.

F. The infected water supply also leads to large scale epidemics.

Solid Waste Management

The process of transportation, storage, collection and processing of solid waste in a protective and economic manner is termed as solid waste management. The above steps are followed thoroughly in waste management, its first and foremost priority is waste avoidance by minimizing it. To reduce waste, reuse it and recycle, it is called waste prevention.

It is our second priority to reuse, recycles it at the maximum level. Once the possibility of waste prevention is exhausted, the next priority is to reduce the volume of residual waste pass on for final disposal. In recycling, material is separated from the garbage for the process of recycling. For example

A. Old cars are recycled in the German industry.

B. Gas, oil, Chemicals and Tar are also retrieved from the old tyres.

C. Papers, cans etc. are recycled to produce fresh papers.

D. Glass is melted to prepare new articles.


It involves the following process:

Sanitary landfill:

The people in the city dump around 90% of the solid waste into natural or constructed pit or depression which compacts due to the surrounding dust.


In this process, the materials like glass, rubber and plastic etc. are separated and the rest waste is exposed for bacterial action for decomposition for several months to produce manure.

Incineration:Burning of waste to warm up residential units is termed as incineration. It is a convenient and quick method.


It’s the process of burning the waste in absence of 02– In it organic compounds split into gaseous and gaseous fractions (CO, C02, CH4, tar and charred carbon).

Disposal into sea:

It’s a simple and cheap method in which the solid waste is disposed under deep sea water at a remarkable distance from the coastal areas.


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