The major problems of the environment are recognized as global climatic change, ozone depletion, water and air pollutions, deforestation and resources degradation.
23 billion tones of carbon dioxide is released in the air by burning fossil fuels causing Greenhouse effect. The Greenhouse gases are mainly contributed by the industrialized nations.
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By the middle of 21st century, earth’s temperature at present level of heat emission would go up by one to three degree Celsius and the sea level would rise between 30 to 100 centimeters.
India has witnessed alarming environmental degradation in the last two decades. It is the sixth largest and the second fastest producer of Greenhouse gases.
The key environmental pollutions related to industries in India are water pollution, soil erosion, ground water contamination and deforestation. Indian rivers are also suffering from high level of pollution due to enormous municipal wastes, industrial effluents and agricultural run-offs.
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According to expert findings, 70 per cent of India’s surface water is severely polluted. As per government statement in 1992, 3/4th of the total waste water generation is due to the municipal waste which is one half of the total pollution load.
Consequent to it, fresh water resources’ are depleting very fast and water-born diseases are on the increase that account for 2/3rd of the total illnesses in India.
Air pollution in India is the highest by vehicular sources to the extent of 64 per cent, by thermal power 16 per cent, by industry 13 per cent and by climatic sector 7 per cent.
The average level of suspended particular matter, in Kolkota, Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi is very high and these are included in the list of 10 metropolitans of the world in respect thereof.
These cities have reached critical level while Kanpur, Nagpur and Ahmedabad are hitting the same. Chennai is found moderate.
In respect of land pollution, it is disposal of solid and toxic municipal and industrial wastes. The per capita solid waste generation average in India is to the order of 360 to 400 gms. per day. This waste counts for affliction of respiratory diseases.
The steps to control pollution in India include environmental clearance for major industrial activities based to impact assessment before site selection.
Introduction of unleaded petrol, low-sulphur diesel and higher emission norms throughout the country in a phased manner is the second significant step.
Beside this, efforts are to be intensified further to control pollution in 22 industries in various towns and cities that are critically polluted. The industries are to comply with such emission and effluent standards as may be notified in a time-bound manner.