17 Questions with Answers and Explanations on “Human Health and Disease” for Biology Students:
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Q. 1. Mention in brief various factors that can affect health.
Ans. Health is affected by:
1. Genetic disorders—
The disorders developed in an individual which are inherited from either of the parents. It is called congenital disorder.
The disorders/diseases caused due to pathogenic organisms.
3. Life style—
The life style of a person is responsible for developing disorders/diseases.
Q. 2. Define health and its benefits.
Ans. It is the state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing. Benefits of health are—
(1) Increase the productivity and brings economic prosperity.
(2) Increases the life (Longevity).
(3) It reduces infant and maternal mortality.
Q. 3. What are various public health measures which you would suggest as safeguard against infectious diseases?
Ans. (1) Awareness about diseases and their effect on different body functions.
(2) Vaccination programmes.
(3) Waste disposals.
(4) Control of vectors (mosquito and housefly breeding).
(5) Hygienic food and water resources.
Q. 4. A patient went to Dr. Swati with following symptoms. Sustained high fever (39°-40° C), weakness headache, loss of appetite and stomach pain. Which test would Dr. Swati recommend? If positive, name the causative agent and the disease. What is the possible mode of infection?
Ans. Test recommented — Widal test.
Causative agent — Salmonella typhi Disease — Typhoid
Mode of infection — Contaminated food and water.
Q. 5. What measures would you like to take to prevent water-borne diseases?
Ans. 1. Consumption of clear drinking water.
2. Proper disposal of waste and excreta.
3. Periodic cleaning and disinfection of water reservoirs.
4. Awareness about diseases.
Q. 6. What is vaccination? What is the role of vaccines in body? Give two examples when immediate response is needed by body to defend it, name this type of immunization.
Ans. The process of injecting giving vaccine into the body for developing immunity is called vaccination.
The role of vaccine is to produce memory cells—B and T cells. Vaccines for tetanus, snake bites-this type of immunization is called passive immunization.
Q. 7. What is auto immunity? How it is caused? Give one example.
Ans. The body sometimes ‘attacks’ self cells, this type of activity is called autoimmunity. It is caused due to some unknown and genetic reasons, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis.
Q. 8. Which type of organ is spleen? What is its role and function in the body?
Ans. Spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. It is the site for interaction of lymphocytes with the antigen, which then divide to become effector cells.
It has lymphocytes and phagocytes. It acts as a filter of blood by trapping the blood- borne microorganisms. It also acts as a reservoir of erythrocytes.
Q. 9. What are the various routes by which transmission of human immune deficiency virus takes place? (NCERT)
Ans. Transmission of HIV takes place following means:
(1) Sexual contact with infected person.
(2) Transfusion of contaminated blood and blood products.
(3) Sharing the infected needles.
(4) From the infected mother to her developing child through placenta.
Q. 10. What is the mechanism by which the AIDS virus causes deficiency of immune system of the infected person?
Ans. The mechanism followed in an infected person by the AIDS virus—HIV is as follows:
1. HIV- Macrophages virus particles
T-lymphocytes (TH) progeniy virus.
2. Progendiy virus —> Blood —> TH.
The virus enters the body of the person and attacks macrophages which starts producing virus particles.
Simultaneously, they also attack T-lymphocytes helper cells that produce progeny virus. These are released in blood with attack new TH.
This goes on and as a result T-lymphocytes decrease in number and makes the person immune deficient. Thus, the infected person becomes prone to infections.
Q. 11. How is a cancerous cell different from a normal cell?
Ans. Normal cells divide and differentiate. Their division and differentiation is a regulated process. They show a property called contact inhibition.
By virtue of it, the cells when come in contact with other cells inhibit their uncontrolled growth. This property is lacking in cancerous cells. Due to which the cells convert into a mass of cells called tumor.
Q. 12. Explain what is meant by metastasis?
Ans. Malignant tumors are a mass of dividing cells called tumor cells or neoplastic cells. These cells grow rapidly, invading and damaging the surrounding normal tissues. They also complete with them for Vital nutrients.
These cells slough off and reach distant sites through blood where they get lodged and start to form a new tumor. This property is called metastasis.
Q. 13. List the harmful effects caused by alcohol/drug abuse. Ans. Harmful effects caused by alcohol/drug abuse. Drug abusers who take it intravenously may cause
(1) AIDS, Hepatitis B infection
(2) Heart failure, cerebral hemorrhage, coma and death due to respiratory failure.
(3) In females—masculisation, aggressiveness, mood swings, enlargement of some organ. During pregnancy it adversely effects the foetus. Alcohol abusers who become addicts may show:
(1) Damaged nervous system and
(3) Reckless behaviour, vandalism and violence.
Q. 14. Do you think friends can influence one to take alcohol/drugs? If yes, how may one protect himself/herself from such an influence.
Ans. It all depends on an individual’s inner strength. If one believes in oneself, accepts the falls and rises in sports academics evenly, happily and can face and cope with such situations, then the answer is NO.
If an individual has weak inner strength, then he/she can easily be carried away to overcome the above situations and can get influenced.
On the other hand, if he/she is experimental/curiosity mode then a strong will power is needed to keep one-self at bay to reject such things to groups of friends.
Q. 15. In your view what motivates youngsters to take to alcohol/drugs and how can this be avoided?
Ans. Refer ans. to Q. 18 above.
Q. 16. List some preventive and control measures for students regarding alcohol and drugs abuse.
Ans. (1) Avoid undue peer pressure.
(2) Seek help from parents and peers.
(3) Self education and counselling.
(4) Seeking professional and medical help.
(5) Awareness of danger signs, harmful effects on body and life.
Q. 17. Give the information you have under the following heads in reference to the drugs mentioned therein. Answer any One. (z) Source (ii) Mode of intake (z’z’z’) Effect of drug on body
(c) coca alkaloid,
Ans. (a) Opioids
Paperer somriferum (Poppy plant). Latex form of this plant.
Acetylation of morphine extracted from latex.
(ii) Mode of intake:
By snorting and injection.
(iii) Effect of drug on body:
Depressant and slows down the body junctions.
(i) Source: Cannabis sativa (Bhang plant). The flower tops, leaves and resin.
(ii) Mode of intake: By inhalation and oral ingestion,
(iii) Effect of drug on body: Cardio vascular system.
(c) Coca alkaloid
Erythroxylum coca (Coca plant)
(ii) Mode of intake:
(iii) Effect of drug on body:
Stimulating action on CW System, hallucinations,
(d) LSD—Lysergic acid diethyl amides.
(i) Source: Medicines
(ii) Mode of intake: By injections, oral ingestion,
(iii) Effect on body: Hallucination, tranquility.