The population of our country is increasing at an alarming rate and according to population studies India has become the second largest country in the world, accounting for 15% of the world’s population with only 2.4% of the world’s land area.
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In the beginning of 20th century the population of India was 23.8 crores but in the year 1994 it was about 90 crores. The Indian population is increasing by about 25 millions every year. It means more than 70,000 babies are born every day.
If population growth rate goes on increasing and remains unchecked then it may cross 1000 million marks by the end of 2000 A.D. and will become the world’s first country in population as compared to China. This population explosion is needed to be controlled in order to avoid its adverse effects on the country’s economical, social and environmental aspects.
Previously the growth of population was limited because there used to be high death rate due to epidemics, famines (scarcities) and other natural calamities like floods, earthquakes and to some extent wars.
But now-a-days the death rate has sharply decreased due to improvement in health services in the fields of maternity and child health (MCH), school health services and control of most of the communicable diseases.
With the advancement of technology even some control has been made on natural calamities. Through all these measures though death rate has decreased but birth rate has not appreciably decreased. Thus, it will be seen that it is the high birth rate as compared to low death rate, which is the main cause of population explosion in India.
In under-developed and developing countries the cost of living is increasing day by day. For an average person it has become extremely difficult to meet both ends and one remains always busy in earning his bread and butter.
Neither has he had spare money nor time to join clubs or other recreational facilities. He remains more attached to his family. For his recreation he indulges in sexual intercourse (for which no money is required) resulting into repeated conceptions and ultimately become helpless when his family grows into a large family.
This leads to poverty and unemployment which results into immoral acts and encourage thefts, day robberies and even murders. When a young man or woman will remain unemployed and empty pocket he or she will indulge in such immoral acts. This state of affair is seen in a large section of young people.
Causes of High Birth Rate:
1. Early attainment of puberty in girls generally upto 14 years of age.
2. Early marriage even at the age of 15 or below.
3. Poverty and low standard of living.
5. Lack of recreational facilities due to poverty.
6. Lack of awareness regarding methods of family planning.
7. Due to tradition, superstition and faith that the children are the gift of God and are not the result of man’s deeds. This ideology and fate among depressed class in villages is responsible for a large family in poor man’s house.