19 Important Principles of Supervision as Identified by Burton and Bruekner

Burton and Brueckner (1955) have identified some principles governing the activity of supervision which are relevant even today. These are as follows:

(1) Administrate is generally concerned with providing material facilities whereas supervision is generally concerned with improving the setting for learning.

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(2) Administration and supervision are co-ordinate, co-relative, complementary and mutually shared functions and cannot be separated from each other.


(3) Supervision is aimed at providing all conditions considered to be favourable to learning.

(4) Supervision should take into account the ultimate aims, values and policies with special reference to their adequacy.

(5) It should takes into account facts and laws with special reference to their accuracy.

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(6) It should be carried out with an experimental attitude and should be aimed at constant re-evaluation of aims, values, policies, methods and materials.

(7) It should bear in mind the emergent, evolutionary nature of a changing, democratic society.

(8) It should respect personality and individual differences in personality and should attempt to provide opportunities for the best expression of each unique personality.

(9) It should be based on the assumption that teachers and other staff members are capable of growth.


(10) It should accept and treat idiosyncrasies, reluctance to co-operate and antagonism as challenges whereas reasonableness, co-operation and energetic activity as assets.

(11) It should bear in mind that in a democracy, both teachers and the supervisor have important obligations as well as rights.

(12) Supervision should stimulate initiative, self-reliance and individual responsibility among the staff.

(13) It substitutes leadership for authority.

(14) It should employ scientific methods and attitudes applicable to the dynamic educational processes.

(15) It should utilize and adapt empirical findings concerning the learner, teaching-learning process, nature and development of personality and so on.

(16) It should also employ problem-solving techniques in studying, evaluating and improving educational processes and products.

(17) It should be creative and not prescriptive.

(18) It should seek to deliberately shape and manipulate the environment.

(19) It should be judged by the results it secures.


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