What are the Six Main Causes of Social Change? – Explained!

The main causes of Social change are as follows:

1. Biological Factors:

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Among the biological factors is the qualitative aspect of the population related to heredity. The qualitative aspect of population is based upon powerful and great men and their birth is dependent to large extent, upon heredity and mutation.

The biological principles of natural selection and struggle for survival are constantly producing alternations in society.

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2. Cultural Factors:


Changes in the culture are accompanied by social changes. The main cause of social change is the cultural factor. Culture gives speed and direction to social change and determines the limits beyond which social changes cannot occur.

3. Environmental Factors:

Huntington says, “An alternation in the climate is the sole cause of the evolution and devolution civilizations and cultures.”Excessive rain, floods, earthquakes, drought and changes of season etc. have significant effect upon social relationship and these are modified by such natural occurrences. Thus, there is great impact of geographical environment upon human society.

4. Technological Factors:

Ogburn says, “Technology changes society by changing our environments to which we in turn adapt. This change is usually in the customs and social institutions.” The form of society is under­going change as a result of the development and invention of electric, steam and petrol driven machines for production, the means of transport and communication and various mechanical appliances in everyday life. In the modern age technological factors are among the predominant cause of social change.

5. Psychological Factors:


Psychological factors are regarded as important elements in social change. The cause of social change is the Psychology of man himself. Change is the law of life. Man is by nature a lover of change. He is always trying to discover new things in every sphere of his life and is always anxious for novel experiences.

6. Population Factors:

Increase or decrease in the population has an immediate effect upon economic institutions and associations. Changes in the quality and size of the population have an effect upon the social organization as well as customs and traditions etc. The birth and death rates also influence social change.


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