There are four main processes of socialization:
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(1) Initiating action,
(2) Perception of the situation,
(3) Making the correct response and
(4) To learn to respond and to form a habit. Onwards we shall understand all these four processes.
1. Initiating action:
A behavior is dependent both on the stimulus and the individual. Here the term “individual” stands for mental preparedness. If the individual is not favorably disposed, he will not be able to show the expected behavior even when the stimulus is there.
According to their varying mental preparedness people show different behaviors to the same stimulus. The mental preparedness depends upon the general physical condition, hereditary trait, mind, nervous system, muscles, glands, motivations, need, expectation, purpose, altitude, interest and values of life.
Because of some motivation and need a person may be stimulated to be active in a particular direction. Motivations and needs develop a tension in a person. In order to fulfill them a person starts some action.
Thus it is because of this tension that a person becomes active and learns several social traits. When a person does not carry any tension and all his needs are satisfied, he is not stimulated to learn anything.
Therefore the educational principle has been laid down that the child himself should feel encouraged to do something. Because of this self encouragement he will acquire various social traits.
2. The perception of the situation:
Socialization depends upon the way in which a person perceives a situation. In other words, a person learns various things according to his mode of perception of things. We know that things are considered in different ways by different people.
A particular drama may be liked by some persons and others may dislike it. Similarly, even in identical situations people have varying types of experiences. It is on the basis of these experiences that socialization of people goes on.
3. Showing the correct response:
All the responses of an individual against a stimulus are not correct in the beginning. He has to learn how to make correct responses. He commits errors in the process of learning. Gradually, he learns to show correct responses. Then he gets satisfaction from the same. This satisfaction is a sign of his socialization.
4. To learn to respond or to form a habit:
An individual learns a response if it is praised by others. Then he gets into a habit of showing that response. To become habituated for showing a particular type of response is a very important aspect of socialization.