Molecular Basis of Inheritance in the Human are as follows:
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The process of copying genetic information from one DNA strand into RNA is called as transcription.
During the process of coping only one DNA strand is copied and once the process is set the total DNA of the organism is copied.
Only the difference is that instead of adenine pairing with thymine, uracil is paired. The RNA thus made is m RNA that is further translated into proteins as per the DNA message.
The phenomenon of repeated occurrence of DNA sequences in a DNA molecule is called polymorphism.
It forms the basis of genetic mapping of human genome as well as DNA finger printing. No two individuals can have identical DNA sequence/DNA finger printing.
It has wide application. It is in simple terms variation at genetic level and arises due to mutations.
Allelic variation is a DNA polymorphism and it is inheritable. Polymorphism at very large scale in a population leads to variation, evolution and speciation.
Translation in the process of polymerization of the amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. This is according to the information/message coded on the mRNA from DNA.
The formation of peptide bond between 2 amino acids requires energy. First the amino acid is activated in presence of ATP and linked to cognate tRNA— a process called charging of tRNA/aminocylation of tRNA.
If two such charged tRNA come close enough then a peptide bond is formed in presence of a catalyst. Ribosomes are the cellular protein factories.