What is the difference between Fixed and Variable Costs?

Fixed costs remain constant in total regardless of changes in volume of production and sales, upto a certain level of output.There is an inverse relationship between volume and fixed costs per unit. If volume of production increases, the fixed costs per unit decrease.Thus, total fixed costs do not change with a change in volume but vary per unit of volume inversely. Variable costs vary in total in direct proportion to changes in volume. Image Source : longtermcarenow.com ADVERTISEMENTS: An increase in the volume means a proportionate increase in the total variable costs and a decrease in volume results in a proportionate decline in the total variable costs. There is a linear relationship between volume and variable costs. They are constant per unit.Many costs fall between these two extremes. They are…
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Letter to the Telephone Department for Surrendering Your Telephone

From DateTo The Divisional Engineer (Telegraphs),Re: Surrendering of my telephone No. ____________ ADVERTISEMENTS: Dear Sir,This is to inform you that my services have been transferred to____________ and accordingly I have to vacate the above rented house on____________ where the telephone No. ___________ has been installed. Under the circumstances, when I will not be needing the telephone connection at my residence any longer, I have no alternative but to surrender the same.I would, therefore, request you to arrange to take out the telephone instrument together with its accessories from my residence after disconnecting the line latest by ____________ and refund me the security deposit kept with your department before I proceed on transfer. ADVERTISEMENTS: Thanking you,Yours faithfully, (Your Name) Image Source: 9p5z91rxsag1usgoc1ctvupb.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com
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Letter to Newspaper Editor Regarding Complaint for Water Shortage in Your Area

To The S.D.O. The Public Water Supply Co. (Place Name)Sir,Our colony is suffering from a grave water shortage. Many residents do not have, even a bucket of water in the morning before going to work. ADVERTISEMENTS: Drinking water too is in short supply for the last one week and the water from the general supply, even when boiled, is not hygienic.Kindly send your staff to check the water pipe lines, which may be blocked and have them cleared. Thanking you,Yours sincerely, (Your Name) (Address) Image Source: static.dnaindia.com ADVERTISEMENTS:
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Price Determination under Monopolistic Competition – Explained!

Each firm under imperfect competition or monopolistic competition produces different commodities which are close substitutes.This makes the output and price policies of an individual firm’s product partially dependent on the output and price policies of its rivals.In other words, the average revenue curve and the average cost curve of each firm will be partially affected by the price and output policies of its rivals. ADVERTISEMENTS: Since each firm can also increase or decrease the price of its commodity by its own action, the average revenue curve of each firm slopes downwards.It should be remembered that under perfect competition the average revenue curve of each firm is a horizontal straight line. It is so because no firm by its individual action increases or decreases the price of its commodity.Further in the…
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How to Determine Price under Oligopoly Market? – Explained!

There is no definite theory of price-output determination under oligopoly. The reason being that there is interdependence in the decision-behaviour of oligopolistic firms and the uncertainty about the reaction patterns of rival firms.The demand curve of each firm is uncertain. Due to interdependence in the behaviour of firms and uncertain reaction patterns, there can be a variety of behaviour patterns.Different economists have made different assumptions about the aims of oligopolist firms and they assumed different behaviour patterns of firms accordingly. ADVERTISEMENTS: Different behaviour patterns may be-(i) rivals may decide to co-operate in the pursuit of their objectives, (ii) they may fight each other to increase their market shares, and (iii) agreements may be of wide variety.Therefore, a large variety of models about price-output determination under oligopoly have been developed by…
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Three different kinds of excretory system in prawn

Different kinds of excretory system in prawn are as follows: (a) A pair of antennary or green glands (b) A renal or nephroperitonial sac and ADVERTISEMENTS: (c) The integument. 1. Antennary glands: The coxa of each antenna encloses an opaque white structure of the size of a pea, called green gland. It has three parts, end sac, labyrinth or glandular plexus, and bladder. Image Source: 185.26.182.219 ADVERTISEMENTS: (a) End sac: It is bean shaped situated in the anterior part of the gland. Its cavity contains a large blood lacuna communicating with labyrinth by an aperture. The wall of end sac is double layered. Outer thick layer consists of connective tissue containing numerous small blood lacunae, while inner thin layer consists of large excretory epithelial cells. (b) Labyrinth: ADVERTISEMENTS: It lies…
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Three different compositions of cells in sycon

Different compositions of cells in sycon are mentioned below: Sycon is diploblastic, (two germ layer present) the outer cellular layer is pinacoderm and inner cellular layer is choanoderm with an intermediate mesenchyme. Both the layers and mesenchyme have different composition of cells: 1. Pinnacoderm: ADVERTISEMENTS: We can divide pinacoderm into two types (i) Exopinacoderm or dermal epithelium makes the cover of entire body surface except dermal ostia and osculum. (ii) Endopinacoderm makes the epithelial lining of incurrent canals and spongocoel. Pinacoderm is composed of large, flattened, polygonal cells, the pinacocytes (Gr., pinako; plank + kytos, cell). Image Source: lh6.ggpht.com ADVERTISEMENTS: They have nucleus bulging out, and are highly contractile. They modify themselves according-to the place, where they are situated in size, shape and function. The lining of incurrent canal is…
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Life cycle of sycon with different kind of larvae – Essay

In Sycon development is indirect i.e., it involves different forms of larva. Beginning from the zygote development involves following 5 stages: (a) Cleavage: In the mesenchyme embryo (zygote) undergoes equal and holoblastic cleavage. First three divisions are vertical resulting into 8 celled stages. ADVERTISEMENTS: Fourth division is horizontal and unequal resulting into 16 blastomeres that are arranged in two tiers. 8 cells of lower tier are larger and are called macromeres. They form pinnacoderm in the adult. Other 8 cells of upper tier are smaller and are called micromeres. They form the choanoderm. Image Source: gbri.org.au Micromeres undergo subsequent division rapidly to produce numerous micromeres. They all acquire flagella at their inner ends, facing the blastocoel. ADVERTISEMENTS: Macromeres don’t undergo division but become somewhat rounded. The embryo is now called…
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Six important external features of fasciola hepatica

Important external features of fasciola hepatica are given below: 1. Shape and Size: Fasciola is a dorso-ventrally flattened, soft, leaf like oval shaped endoparasite. It is about 1.8 to 3.0 cm long, with a maximum width of 0.4 to 1.5 cm. which is a little in front of the middle region of body. Anterior end is somewhat broad and rounded, while posterior end is bluntly pointed. Image Source: biologiklaten.files.wordpress.com ADVERTISEMENTS: 2. Colour of the body: Transparent body wall makes all the body organs to be visible. Due to this, the colour of the fluke appears pinkish. 3. Oral cone: ADVERTISEMENTS: Anterior end of body is drawn out into a prominent conical projection, termed the oral cone or head lobe. At the apex of cone, a triangular mouth is found. 4.…
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Male and female reproductive system of fasciola hepatica – Essay

Male and female reproductive system of fasciola hepatica Fasciola is monoecious and hermaphrodite. Gonads are well developed and open into a common chamber, genital atrium. It opens outside through gonopore. 1. Male Reproductive System ADVERTISEMENTS: (a) Testes: A pair of testes, tandemly arranged lie in the middle and posterior part of the body. Epithelium lining of testes gives rise to sperms. Image Source: studydroid.com (b) Vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles: ADVERTISEMENTS: Testes lead into sperm duct or vasa deferens. The two vasa diferentia run side-by-side anteriorly upto the level of acetabulum. Here they unite to form a large seminal vesicle for storage of sperms. (c) Cirrus sac: Anteriorly from seminal vesicle, arises a narrow and somewhat twisted, tube, the ejaculatory duct, which extends forward and enters a stout muscular and…
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